Protective effect of ursodeoxycholic acid, resveratrol, and N-acetylcysteine on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in rats.



Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease. Resveratrol (RSV) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) are safe representatives of natural and synthetic antioxidants, respectively.


The objective of this study was to evaluate protective effects of RSV and NAC, compared with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), on experimental NAFLD.


NAFLD was induced by feeding rats a methionine choline-deficient diet (MCDD) for four cycles, each of 4?d of MCDD feeding and 3?d of fasting. Animals were divided into normal control, steatosis control, and five treatment groups, receiving UDCA (25?mg/kg/d), RSV (10?mg/kg/d), NAC (20?mg/kg/d), UDCA?+?RSV, and UDCA?+?NAC orally for 28?d. Liver integrity markers (liver index and serum transaminases), serum tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), glucose, albumin, renal functions (urea, creatinine), lipid profile (total cholesterol; TC, triglycerides, high density lipoproteins, low density lipoproteins; LDL-C, very low density lipoproteins, leptin), and oxidative stress markers (hepatic malondialdehyde; MDA, glutathione; GSH, glutathione-S-transferase; GST) were measured using automatic analyzer, colorimetric kits, and ELISA kits, supported by a liver histopathological study.


RSV and NAC administration significantly improved liver index (RSV only), alanine transaminase (52, 52%), TNF-? (70, 70%), glucose (69, 80%), albumin (122, 114%), MDA (55, 63%), GSH (160, 152%), GST (84, 84%), TC (86, 86%), LDL-C (83, 81%), and leptin (59, 70%) levels compared with steatosis control values. A combination of RSV or NAC with UDCA seems to ameliorate their effects.


RSV and NAC are effective on NAFLD through antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and lipid-lowering potentials, where as RSV seems better than UDCA or NAC.


Ali MH, Messiha BA, Abdel-Latif HA. Protective effect of ursodeoxycholic acid, resveratrol, and N-acetylcysteine on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in rats. Pharm Biol. 2016 Jul;54(7):1198-208. doi: 10.3109/13880209.2015.1060247. Epub 2015 Jul 1. PubMed PMID: 26134756.


About the author: Dr. Mordy Levy


Dr. Mordy Levy, ND, DC, HOM, MD(ATG) is the only Canadian doctor to have graduated from three first professional doctorates in separate and distinct health care professions: Chiropractic Medicine (DC)-1997, Conventional Medicine (MD)-2006, Naturopathic Medicine (ND)-2011, graduated Summa Cum Laude, from the prestigious National University of Health Sciences (Chicago, IL) and was the valedictorian of his graduating class.

Dr Levy's first undergraduate degree (BSc) was in Biology and Psychology from York University, graduated with Honours, and his second undergraduate degree (BMSc) was in Human Biology and Biomedical sciences from National University of Health Sciences (Chicago, IL)

Dr. Levy is a registered member in good standing with three distinct health professions in Ontario, namely the College of Chiropractors of Ontario, the College of Naturopaths of Ontario, in addition to the College of Homeopaths of Ontario.

Dr. Levy is a professional member of the Institute of Functional Medicine, the Canadian Society of Orthomolecular Medicine, American College of Nutrition, in addition to the Ontario Association of Naturopathic Doctors, the Ontario Chiropractic Association and the Ontario Homeopathic Association.

Always an avid lifelong learner, Dr. Levy completed numerous postgraduate certifications in Functional Medicine, Clinical Nutrition, Medical Acupuncture, Homeopathic Medicine, in addition to Prolotherapy regenerative medicine. His clinical interests are in Neurological, Autoimmune, Hormonal and Gastrointestinal Dysfunctions.
On a personal noted: Dr. Levy enjoys spending time with his three boys, practicing TaeKwonDo and reviewing research articles.

Website: http://www.DrLevy.ca